You are absolutely right that outcome in an emergency depends on how close you are to an excellent hospital. There are studies that show that the quality of the hospitals vary from minority (often low income) to non-minority areas. I've had to go to our local hospital emergency room- which serves a predominantly low income Hispanic clientele (Paterson NJ) - for asthma attacks. The first time the doctor gave me a prescription for a medicine that hasn't been made for 3 years and the second the guy was so happy to have a patient other than a GSW or drunken disorderly that he spent way too long talking to me and was weird. I would go there again only for asthma, but if anything else happens I want to be taken to Montclair - white, upper middle class neighborhood. It scares the crepe out of me that if anything goes wrong I could end up in Paterson in the emergency room.
In Cleveland, the best hositals are pretty much in the middle of the low-income areas. So if you are in Cleveland, its great...until you get the bill, i suppose.